כתובות  פרק  שנים עשרה   הנושא את האשה  ( קג: )       Kethuboth 103b  ❃

והושיבו ישיבה לאחר שלשים יום שמעון בני חכם, גמליאל בני נשיא, חנינא בר חמא ישב בראש.

אל תספדוני בעיירות.

סבור מינה, משום טרחא הוא דקאמר, כיון דחזי דקספדי בכרכים וקאתו כולי עלמא, אמרו: שמע מינה, משום יקרא הוא דקאמר.

הושיבו ישיבה לאחר שלשים יום.

דלא עדיפנא ממשה רבינו, דכתיב: (דברים ל"ד) ויבכו בני ישראל את משה בערבות מואב שלשים יום, תלתין יומין ספדין ביממא וליליא, מכאן ואילך ספדו ביממא וגרסי בליליא או ספדו בליליא וגרסי ביממא, עד דספדי תריסר ירחי שתא.

ההוא יומא דאשכבתיה דרבי, נפקא בת קלא ואמרה: כל דהוה באשכבתיה דרבי מזומן הוא לחיי העוה"ב.

ההוא כובס כל יומא הוה אתי קמיה, ההוא יומא לא אתא, כיון דשמע הכי, סליק לאיגרא ונפל לארעא ומית, יצתה בת קול ואמרה: אף ההוא כובס מזומן הוא לחיי העולם הבא.

שמעון בני חכם.

מאי קאמר?

הכי קאמר: אע"פ ששמעון בני חכם, גמליאל בני נשיא.

אמר לוי: צריכא למימר?

אמר רבי שמעון בר רבי: צריכא לך ולמטלעתך.

מאי קשיא ליה?

הא קרא קאמר: (דברי הימים ב' כ"א) ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור.

ההוא ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה, ורבן גמליאל אינו ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה.

ורבי מאי טעמא עבד הכי?

נהי דאינו ממלא מקום אבותיו בחכמה, ביראת חטא ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה.

חנינא בר חמא ישב בראש.

לא קיבל רבי חנינא, שהיה ר' אפס גדול ממנו שתי שנים ומחצה.

יתיב רבי אפס ברישא, ויתיב רבי חנינא אבראי ואתא לוי ויתיב גביה.

נח נפשיה דרבי אפס ויתיב רבי חנינא ברישא, ולא הוה ליה ללוי איניש למיתב גביה - וקאתא לבבל.

והיינו דאמרי ליה לרב: גברא רבה אקלע לנהרדעא ומטלע, ודריש כלילא שרי, אמר: שמע מינה, נח נפשיה דרבי אפס ויתיב רבי חנינא ברישא, ולא הוה ליה ללוי איניש למיתב גביה וקאתא.

ואימא: רבי חנינא נח נפשיה, ור' אפס כדיתיב יתיב, ולא הוה ליה ללוי איניש למיתב גביה וקאתא איבעית אימא: לוי לר' אפס מיכף הוה כייף ליה ואי בעית אימא: כיון דאמר ר' חנינא בר חמא ישב בראש, לא סגי דלא מליך, דכתיב בהו בצדיקים: (איוב כ"ב) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך.

והא הוה ר' חייא נח נפשיה.

והאמר ר' חייא: אני ראיתי קברו של רבי והורדתי עליו דמעות איפוך.

והאמר רבי חייא: אותו היום שמת רבי בטלה קדושה איפוך.

והתניא: כשחלה רבי, נכנס ר' חייא אצלו ומצאו שהוא בוכה, אמר לו: רבי, מפני מה אתה בוכה?

והתניא: מת מתוך השחוק - סימן יפה לו, מתוך הבכי - סימן רע לו פניו למעלה - סימן יפה לו, פניו למטה - סימן רע לו פניו כלפי העם - סימן יפה לו, כלפי הכותל - סימן רע לו פניו ירוקין - סימן רע לו, פניו צהובין ואדומים - סימן יפה לו מת בע"ש - סימן יפה לו, במו"ש - סימן רע לו מת בערב יוהכ"פ - סימן רע לו, במוצאי יוהכ"פ - סימן יפה לו מת מחולי מעיים - סימן יפה לו, מפני שרובם של צדיקים מיתתן בחולי מעיים א"ל: אנא אתורה ומצות קא בכינא איבעית אימא: איפוך ואיבעית אימא: לעולם לא תיפוך, ר' חייא עסוק במצות הוה, ורבי סבר: לא אפגריה.

והיינו דכי הוו מינצו ר' חנינא ור' חייא, א"ל ר' חנינא לר' חייא: בהדי דידי מינצת?

דאם חס ושלום נשתכחה תורה מישראל, מהדרנא ליה מפלפולי א"ל ר' חייא: אנא עבדי דלא משתכחה תורה מישראל, דאייתינא כיתנא ושדיינא, ומגדלנא נישבי וציידנא טביא, ומאכילנא בישרא ליתמי, ואריכנא מגילתא ממשכי דטביא, וסליקנא למתא דלית בה מקרי דרדקי, וכתיבנא חמשא חומשי לחמשא ינוקי, ומתנינא שיתא סידרי לשיתא ינוקי, לכל חד וחד אמרי ליה אתני סידרך לחברך.

והיינו דאמר רבי: כמה גדולים מעשה חייא.

א"ל ר"ש ב"ר: אפילו ממך?

א"ל: אין.

א"ל רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי: אפילו מאבא?

א"ל: חס ושלום, לא תהא כזאת בישראל.

אמר להן: לבני קטן אני צריך, נכנס ר' שמעון אצלו, מסר לו סדרי חכמה.

אמר להן: לבני גדול אני צריך, נכנס רבן גמליאל אצלו, ומסר לו סדרי נשיאות.

אמר לו: בני, נהוג נשיאותך ברמים, זרוק מרה בתלמידים.

איני?

והא כתיב: (תהלים ט"ו) ואת יראי ה' יכבד, ואמר מר: זה יהושפט מלך יהודה, כשהיה רואה תלמיד חכם, היה עומד מכסאו ומחבקו ומנשקו, וקורא לו: רבי, רבי, מרי, מרי לא קשיא: הא בצינעא, הא בפרהסיא.

תניא: רבי מוטל בציפורי, ומקום מוכן לו בבית שערים.

והתניא: (דברים ט"ז) צדק צדק תרדף - הלך אחר ר' לבית שערים ר' בבית שערים הוה, אלא כיון דחלש אמטיוהי לציפורי,


and reassemble(1) the college after thirty days.(2)

My son Simeon is wise(3) my son Gamaliel Nasi(4) and Hanina B`Hama shall preside [at the college].'

Do not lament for me in the smaller towns'.

He was understood to give this instruction In order [to cause less] trouble.(5)

As it was observed, however, that when lamentations were held in the large towns everybody(6) came(7) they arrived at the conclusion that his instruction was due to [a desire to enhance] the honour [of the people].(8) 'Reassemble the college after thirty days', because [he thought] 'I am not more important than our teacher Moses concerning whom it is Written in Scripture.

And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days'.(9)

For thirty days they mourned both day and night; subsequently(10) they mourned in the day-time and studied at night or mourned at night and studied during the day, until a period of twelve months of mourning(11) [had passed].

On the day that Rabbi died a bath kol(12) went forth and announced: Whosoever has been present at the death of Rabbi is destined to enjoy the life of the world to come.

A certain fuller,(13) who used to come to him(14) every day, failed to call on that day; and, as soon as he heard this, went up upon a roof, fell down to the ground and died.

A bath kol(12) came forth and announced: That fuller also is destined to enjoy the life of the world to come.'

My son Simeon is wise.

What did he(14) mean?(15) - It is this that he meant: Although my son Simeon is wise, my son Gamaliel shall be the Nasi.(16)

Said Levi, 'Was It necessary to state this? '(17) - It was necessary'.

replied R`Simeon B`Rabbi, 'for yourself and for your lameness'.(18)

What was his(19) difficulty?(20)

Does not Scripture state, But the kingdom gave he to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn?(21) - The other(22) was properly representing(23) his ancestors(24) but R`Gamaliel was not properly representing(23) his ancestors.(25)

Then why did Rabbi act in the manner he did?(26) - Granted that he(27) was not representing his ancestors In wisdom he was worthily representing them in his fear of sin.(28) 'Hanina B`Hama shall preside at the college'.

R`Hanina, however, did not accept [the office] because R`Afes was by two and a half years older than he; and so R`Afes presided.

R`Hanina sat [at his studies] outside [the lecture room],(29) and Levi came and joined him.

When R`Afes went to his eternal rest(30) and R`Hanina took up the presidency Levi had no one to join him(31) and came in consequence to Babylon.

This description coincides with the following:(32) When Rab was told that a great man who was lame made his appearance at Nehardea(33) and held a discourse [in the course of which he] permitted [the wearing of] a wreath,(34) he said,'It is evident(35) that R`Afes has gone to his eternal rest, and R`Hanina has taken over the presidency; and that Levi having had no one to join him, has come [down here].'

But might not one have suggested that R`Hanina came to his eternal rest, that R`Afes continued In the presidency as before(36) and that Levi who had no one to join him came [therefore, to Babylon]?

If you wish I might reply: Levi would have submitted to the authority of R`Afes.

And if you prefer I might reply: Since [Rabbi] once said, 'Hanina B`Hama shall preside at the college', there could be no possibility of his not becoming head;(37) for about the righteous it is written in Scripture.

Thou shalt also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto thee.(38)

Was there not R`Hiyya?(39) - He had already gone to his eternal rest.(40)

But did not R`Hiyya, state, 'I saw Rabbi's sepulchre(41) and shed tears upon it'? - Reverse [the names].

But did not R`Hiyya state, 'On the day on which Rabbi died holiness ceased'? - Reverse [the names].

But has it not been taught: When Rabbi fell in R`Hiyya entered into his presence and found him weeping.'

Master', he said to him, 'Why are you weeping?

Was it not taught: '[If a man] dies smiling it is a good omen for him, if weeping it is a bad omen for him; his face upwards it is a good omen, his face downwards it is a bad omen; his face towards the public it is a good omen, towards the wall it is a bad omen; if his face is greenish it is a bad omen, if bright and ruddy it.

is a good omen; dying on Sabbath Eve(42) is a good omen, on the termination of the Sabbath(43) is a bad omen; dying on the Eve of the Day of Atonement is a bad omen, on the termination of the Day of Atonement(44) is a good omen; dying of diarrhoea is a good omen because most righteous men die of diarrhoea? ' And the other replied, 'I weep on [account of my impending separation from] the Torah and the commandments'?(45) - If you wish I might reply: Reverse [the names]; and if you prefer I might reply: In fact there Is no need to reverse [the names; but as] R`Hiyya was engaged in the performance of pious deeds Rabbi thought 'I will not disturb him'.(46)

This(47) is in line with the following:(48) When R`Hanina and R`Hiyya were engaged in a dispute R`Hanina said to R`Hiyya, 'Do you [venture to] dispute with me?

Were the Torah, God forbid, to be forgotten in Israel, I would restore it by means of my dialectical arguments'.

- 'I', replied R`Hiyya, 'make provision that the Torah shall not be forgotten in Israel.

For I bring flax seed, sow it, and weave nets [from the plant].

[With these] I hunt stags with whose flesh I feed orphans and from whose skins I prepare scrolls, and then proceed to a town where there are no teachers of young children, and write out the five Books of the Pentateuch for five children [respectively] and teach another six children respectively the six orders of the Mishnah, and then tell each one: Teach your section to your colleagues"'.

It was this that Rabbi [had in mind when he] exclaimed, 'How great are the deeds of Hiyya? ' Said R`Simeon B`Rabbi to him: '[Greater] even than yours? ' - 'Yes', he replied.'

Even', asked R`Ishmael the son of R`Jose, 'than my father's? ' - 'God forbid', the other replied.'

Let no such thing be [mentioned] in Israel!'(49) 'I desire', he(50) announced, 'the presence of my younger son R`Simeon entered into his presence and he entrusted him with the orders(51) of wisdom.'

I desire the presence of my elder son', he announced.

When R`Gamaliel entered he entrusted him with the traditions and regulations(51) of the Patriarchate.'

My son', he said to him, 'conduct your patriarchate with men of high standing,(52) and cast bile among the students'.(53)

But , surely, this(54) is not proper(55) for is it not written in Scripture, But he honoureth them that fear the Lord,(56) and the Master said that this [text might be applied to] Jehoshaphat, King of Judah.

who, on seeing a scholar, used to rise from his throne, embrace him and kiss him, and call him 'My master, my master; my teacher, my teacher'? - This is no difficulty: The latter attitude(57) [is to be adopted] in private; the former(57) in public.(58)

It was taught: Rabbi was lying [on his sickbed] at Sepphoris(59) but a [burial] place was reserved for him at Beth She'arim.(60)

Was it not, however, taught: Justice, justice shalt thou follow.(61)

follow Rabbi to Beth She'arim? - Rabbi was [indeed] living at Beth She'arim(62) but when he fell ill(63) he was brought to Sepphoris


(1) Lit., 'and cause to sit.

(2) Of lamentation and mourning. No longer period for mourning shall be allowed. ofj

(3) . this is explained in the Gemara infra. V. also infra n. 24 and p. 659. n. 9. thab

(4) 'prince'. 'president', 'patriarch'. On some of the dignities and honours attached to the offices of Nasi, Hakam, and Ab-beth-din respectively v. Hor. 13b.

(5) By restricting the lamentations to the larger towns the inhabitants of the smaller ones as well as the villagers would be spared the time and trouble involved in arranging, or attending, the public funeral services.

(6) Lit., 'all the world'.

(7) Both from the smaller towns and the villages.

(8) Cf., 'he wished that Israel might be honoured in greater measure through him' (Sanh. 470) .

(9) Deut. XXXIV, 8.

(10) Lit., 'from now onwards'.

(11) Lit., 'that they mourned twelve months of the year'.

(12) V. Glos.

(13) [Probably this was the fuller mentioned in Ned. 410 (Jacob Emden) .]

(14) Rabbi.

(15) One would naturally expect the wise son rather than the other to succeed his father as Nasi. Why then did Rabbi mention the wisdom of the one as apparently a reason for the appointment of the other?

(16) Cf. supra p. 658 nn. 13-14. [Halevy Doroth, II, p. 20, n. I, explains that what Rabbi primarily meant was that Simeon shall be the Hakam and Gamaliel the Nasi. The precedence, however, given in his instructions to Simeon, although his office was second to that of the Nasi, indicated that Rabbi desired to have a secondary meaning attached to his words. Hence the question, 'what did he mean?'].

(17) That Gamaliel, who was the elder son and entitled to the succession, shall be the Nasi.

(18) Levi was lame (v. Suk. 530) . Aliter (Jast.) : 'Do we need thee and thy limping (lame remark) ?'

(19) R. Simeon b. Rabbi's.

(20) In understanding Levi's objection.

(21) II Chron. XXI, 3. (Cf. p. 659, n. 10) . What need then was there, as Levi objected, for Rabbi's specific instruction?

(22) Lit., 'that', Jehoram.

(23) Lit., 'fulfilling the place of'.

(24) Since there was no other son possessing a superior claim.

(25) His younger brother having been wiser. Hence the necessity for Rabbi's specific instructions. Aliter; What was his (sc. Levi's) difficulty? (Is it) that Scripture stated, But the kingdom . . the firstborn, that (firstborn, it may be replied.) was properly representing his ancestors but R. Gamaliel etc. (cf. S. Strashun) .

(26) Lit. , 'thus'.

(27) Gamaliel.

(28) Moral conception and conduct (cf. Abboth III, II; Sonc. ed. III, 9' p. 32) .

(29) Since he could not recognise R. Afes as his superior.

(30) Lit., 'his soul rested'.

(31) Lit., 'to sit at his side'.

(32) Lit., 'and that is'.

(33) V. supra p. 222, n. 8.

(34) On the Sabbath, when the carrying of objects from one domain into another is forbidden (cf. Shab. 59b) .

(35) Lit., 'infer from this'.

(36) Lit., 'as he sat he sits'.

(37) Lit., 'that he should not reign'. Consequently he must have survived R. Afes.

(38) lob XXII, 28.

(39) Who was superior to both R. Hanina and R. Afes. Why was he overlooked by Rabbi?

(40) When Rabbi was making his testamentary appointments.

(41) 'His coffin' (Rashi) .

(42) Being the approach of the day of rest.

(43) Lit., 'at the going out of the Sabbath'.

(44) One's sins having been forgiven during the day.

(45) All of which proves that R. Hiyya was still alive when Rabbi was on his deathbed.

(46) Lit., 'cause him to be idle' or 'to relax'.

(47) The testimony to R. Hiyya's piety and public benefactions.

(48) Lit., 'and that is (why) '.

(49) Cf. B.M. 85b where the parallel passage contains some variations including the substitution of 'R. Ishmael the son of R. Jose' for 'R. Simeon b. Rabbi'.

(50) Rabbi. The story of the last moments of his life, interrupted by the Preceding discussions, explanations and incidents, is here resumed. rsx

(51) Plur. const. of 'order', 'rules and regulations'. ohnrc or ohnsc ohns

(52) (sing. 'high', 'elevated') . Aruch reads,) ( 'equivalent', 'compensation', 'value') 'as something precious'.

(53) Sc. 'introduce a firm discipline in the college'.

(54) Keeping scholars under a discipline which many might regard as degrading.

(55) Lit., 'I am not'.

(56) Ps. XV, 4.

(57) Lit., 'that'.

(58) Scholars, like the general public, may be expected to respect the common rules and regulations and to pay homage to the Patriarch.

(59) V. supra p. 410, n. 6.

(60) Identified with (a) the modern Tur'an. a village situated ten kilometres E.N.E. of Sepphoris (I. S. Horowitz, Palestine s.v.) ; (b) Besara, mentioned in Josephus, the modern Dscheda W. of the Valley of Jezreel (Klein. S. EJ. 4, 427) .

(61) Deut. XVI, 20. cegh ihg

(62) 'Rabbi . . She'arim' is wanting in edd.

(63) V. B.M. 85a.