פסחים  פרק  עשירי   ערבי פסחים  ( קיד: )       Pesachim 114b  ❃
גמרא:

אמר ריש לקיש: זאת אומרת מצות צריכות כוונה.

כיון דלא בעידן חיובא דמרור הוא דאכיל ליה - בבורא פרי האדמה הוא דאכיל ליה, ודילמא לא איכוון למרור - הלכך בעי למהדר לאטבולי לשם מרור.

דאי סלקא דעתך מצוה לא בעיא כוונה - למה לך תרי טיבולי?

והא טביל ליה חדא זימנא ממאי?

דילמא לעולם מצות אין צריכות כוונה, ודקאמרת תרי טיבולי למה לי - כי היכי דליהוי היכירא לתינוקות.

וכי תימא: אם כן לישמעינן שאר ירקות - אי אשמעינן שאר ירקות הוה אמינא: היכא דאיכא שאר ירקות הוא דבעינן תרי טיבולי, אבל חזרת לחודא - לא בעי תרי טיבולי, קמשמע לן: דאפילו חזרת בעינן תרי טיבולי כי היכי דליהוי ביה היכירא לתינוקות.

ועוד תניא: אכלן דמאי - יצא, אכלן בלא מתכוין - יצא, אכלן לחצאין - יצא, ובלבד שלא ישהא בין אכילה לחבירתה יותר מכדי אכילת פרס.

תנאי היא, דתניא, רבי יוסי אומר: אף על פי שטיבל בחזרת - מצוה להביא לפניו חזרת וחרוסת ושני תבשילין.

ואכתי, ממאי?

דילמא קסבר רבי יוסי מצות אין צריכות כוונה, והאי דבעינן תרי טיבולי - כי היכי דתיהוי היכירא לתינוקות - אם כן מאי מצוה?

מאי שני תבשילין?

אמר רב הונא: סילקא וארוזא.

רבא הוה מיהדר אסילקא וארוזא, הואיל ונפיק מפומיה דרב הונא.

אמר רב אשי: שמע מינה דרב הונא: לית דחייש להא דרבי יוחנן בן נורי.

דתניא, רבי יוחנן בן נורי אומר: אורז מין דגן הוא, וחייבין על חימוצו כרת, ואדם יוצא בו ידי חובתו בפסח.

חזקיה אמר: אפילו דג וביצה שעליו.

רב יוסף אמר: צריך שני מיני בשר, אחד זכר לפסח ואחד זכר לחגיגה.

רבינא אמר: אפילו גרמא ובישולא.

פשיטא, היכא דאיכא שאר ירקות - מברך אשאר ירקות בורא פרי האדמה ואכיל, והדר מברך על אכילת מרור ואכיל.

היכא דליכא אלא חסא, מאי?

אמר רב הונא: מברך מעיקרא אמרור בורא פרי האדמה ואכיל, ולבסוף מברך עליה על אכילת מרור ואכיל.


Resh Lakish said: This(1) proves that precepts require intention, [for] since he does not eat it(2) the stage when bitter herbs are compulsory, he eats it with [the blessing,] 'Who createst the fruit of the ground,' and perhaps he did not intend [to fulfil the obligation of] bitter herbs; therefore he must dip it again with the express purpose of [eating] bitter herbs.

For if you should think [that] precepts do not require intention, why two dippings: surely he has [already] dipped it once?(3)

But whence [does this food]?

Perhaps after a precepts do not require intention, and as to what you argue, why two dippings, [the answer is,] that there may be a distinction for [the sake of] the children.(4)

And should you say, if so, we should be informed about other vegetables:(5) If we were informed about other vegetables I would say: Only where other vegetables [are eaten first] do we require two dippings, but lettuce alone(6) does not require two dippings:(7) hence he informs us that even lettuce [alone] requires two dippings, so that there may be a distinction [shown] therewith for the children.

Moreover, it was taught: If he ate them [the bitter herbs] while demai,(8) he has discharged [his duty]; if he ate them without intention, he has discharged [his duty]; if he ate them, in half quantities,(9) he has discharged [his duty], providing that he does not wait between one eating and the next more than is required for the eating of half [a loaf]?(10) -it is [dependent on] Tannaim.

For it was taught, R`Jose said: Though he has [already] dipped the lettuce [hazereth], it is a religious requirement to bring lettuce and haroseth and two dishes before him.(11)

Yet still, whence [does this food]: perhaps R`Jose holds [that] precepts do not require intention and the reason that we require two dippings is that there may be a distinction [shown] for the children? - If so, what is the 'religious requirement? '(12)

What are the two dishes? -Said R`Huna: Beet and rice.(13)

Raba used to be particular for(14) beet and rice, since it had [thus] issued from the mouth of R`Huna.

R`Ashi said: From R`Huna you may infer that none pay heed to the following [ruling] of R`Johanan B`Nuri.

For it was taught, R`Johanan B`Nuri said: Rice is a species of corn and kareth is incurred for [eating it in] its leavened state, and a man discharges his duty with it on Passover.(15)

Hezekiah said: Even a fish and the egg on it.(16)

R`Joseph said: Two kinds of meat are necessary, one in memory of the Passover-offering and the second in memory of the hagigah.(17)

Rabina said: Even a bone and [its] broth.

It is obvious that where other vegetables are present, he recites(18) the blessing, 'who createst the fruit of th ground' over the other vegetables and eats, and then(19) recites the blessing, '[Who hast commanded us] concerning the eating of bitter herbs,' and eats.(20)

But what if he has lettuce only?

Said R`Huna: First he recites a blessing over the bitter herbs, 'Who createst the fruit of the ground,' and eats, and then [later] he recites over it 'concerning the eating of bitter herbs' and eats.


(1) The fact that he dips lettuce twice.

(2) The first lettuce.

(3) The first lettuce is eaten before it is obligatory (v. n. 8 in Mishnah) ; hence the ordinary blessing for vegetables is recited, not 'who hast commanded us concerning the eating (If bitter herbs,' though later it will be eaten as an obligation. This he did not discharge his duty of eating bitter herbs with the first lettuce, because that was not his intention, which proves that one does not discharge one's duty unless it is expressly done with that intention.

(4) v.p. 587, n. 8.

(5) The Mishnah should state that a vegetable is dipped into water and eaten Why specify hazereth (lettuce) , which is one of the vegetables which may be eaten as bitter herbs (v. supra 39a) ?

(6) I.e., where lettuce alone is eaten.

(7) for once he has eaten it he has done his duty in respect of bitter herbs.

(8) V. Glos.

(9) I.e., as much as half an olive the first time and the same the second time, as much as an olive being the minimum quantity which must be eaten.

(10) V. supra p. 208, n. 9. - This distinctly contradicts Resh Lakish.

(11) And Resh Lakish maintains that R. Jose's reason is because precepts require intention.

(12) mizwah implies that it is an essential obligation.

(13) Even these constitute two dishes, and of course two kinds of meat all the more (Rashbam and Tosaf.)

(14) Lit., 'go in search of.'

(15) Tabshil denotes a boiled dish: hence if it were a species of corn, boiling would make it leaven.

(16) I.e.,the egg with which it is smeared before it is prepared. Though it becomes all one, yet it counts as two dishes.

(17) v. Mishnah supra 69b.

(18) At the first dipping.

(19) At the second dipping.

(20) Each blessing being over a different vegetable.