פסחים  פרק  שלישי   אלו עוברין  ( מב: )       Pesachim 42b  ❃

דסמידא, בשר שמן - דצפירתא דלא אפתח, יין ישן - עתיק עתיקי.

כל מילי דמעלי להאי - קשה להאי, ודקשה להאי - מעלי להאי, בר מזנגבילא רטיבא, ופילפלי אריכתא, ופת נקייה, ובשר שמן, ויין ישן - דמעלי לכולי גופיה.

שכר המדי - דרמו ביה מי שערי.

וחומץ האדומי - דשדו ביה שערי.

אמר רב נחמן (בר יצחק): בתחלה, כשהיו מביאין נסכים מיהודה - לא היה יינם של יהודה מחמיץ עד שנותנין לתוכן שעורין, והיו קורין אותו חומץ סתם.

ועכשיו אין יינם של אדומיים מחמיץ עד שנותנין לתוכן שעורין, וקורין אותו חומץ האדומי.

לקיים מה שנאמר (יחזקאל כו) אמלאה החרבה, אם מלאה זו - חריבה זו, ואם מלאה זו - חרבה זו.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר: מהכא (בראשית כה) ולאם מלאם יאמץ.

תניא, אמר רבי יהודה: ביהודה, בראשונה הלוקח חומץ מעם הארץ - אינו צריך לעשר, מפני שחזקה אינו בא אלא מן התמד.

ועכשיו, הלוקח חומץ מעם הארץ - צריך לעשר, שחזקתו אינו בא אלא מן היין.

וסבר רבי יהודה תמד לאו בר עשורי הוא?

והא (תניא) (מסורת הש"ס: [תנן]): המתמד ונתן מים במדה, ומצא כדי מדתו - פטור, ורבי יהודה מחייב - הכי קאמר: לא נחשדו עמי הארץ על התמד.

אי בעית אימא: נחשדו.

ולא קשיא: הא - בדרווקא, הא - בדפורצני.

וזיתום המצרי וכו'.

מאי זיתום המצרי?

- תנא רב יוסף: תלתא שערי, תלתא קורטמי, ותלתא מלחא.

רב פפא מפיק שערי ומעייל חיטי, וסימניך סיסני.

תרו להו, וקלו להו, וטחני להו, ושתו להו מדיבחא ועד עצרתא.

דקמיט - מרפי ליה, ודרפי - מקמיט ליה.

לחולה ולאשה עוברה - סכנתא.

וזומן של צבעים וכו'.

הכא תרגימו מיא דחיורי דצבעי בהו לבא.

ועמילן של טבחים וכו' - פת תבואה שלא הביאה שליש, שמניחה על פי קדירה ושואבת הזוהמא.

וקולן של סופרים וכו'.

הכא תרגומא: פרורא דאושכפי.

רב שימי מחוזנאה אמר: זה טיפולן של בנות עשירים שמשיירות אותו לבנות עניים - איני?

והא תנא רבי חייא: ארבעה מיני מדינה, ושלשה מיני אומנות.

ואי אמרת טיפולן של בנות עשירים - מאי מיני אומנות איכא?

- ואלא מאי - פרורא דאושכפי, אמאי קרי ליה האי קולן של סופרים?

קולן של רצענין מיבעיא ליה - אמר רב אושעיא: לעולם פרורא דאושכפי, ומאי קרי ליה קולן של סופרים - דסופרים נמי מדבקין בהו ניירותיהן.

רבי אליעזר אומר אף תכשיטי נשים וכו'.

תכשיטי נשים סלקא דעתך?

- אלא אימא: אף טיפולי נשים, דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב: בנות ישראל


of fine meal.

Fat meat, of a goat which was not opened.(1)

Old wine: very old.(2)

Everything that is beneficial for the one is harmful for the other,(3) and what is harmful for one is beneficial for the other, save moist zangebila,(4) long peppers, white bread, fat meat and old wine, which are beneficial for the whole body.

MEDIAN BEER`Because barley water is mixed into it.

IDUMEAN VINEGAR`Because barley is cast into it.

R`Nahman [b.

Isaac] said:(5) In former times, when they used to bring [wine] libations from Judah, the wine of Judah did not turn vinegar unless barley was put into it, and they used to call it simply vinegar.(6)

But now the wine of the Idumeans does not turn vinegar until barley is put into it, and it is called 'Idumean vinegar', in fulfilment of what is said, [Tyre hath said against Jerusalem.] I shall be replenished, now that she is lai waste:(7) if one is full [flourishing] the other is desolate, and if the other is full the first is desolate.(8)

R`Nahman B`Isaac quoted this: and the one people shall be stronger than the other people.(9)

It was taught, R`Judah said: Originally, he who bought vinegar from an 'am ha-arez(10) did not need to tithe it, because it was a presumption that it was produced from nought but tamad.(11)

But now, he who buys vinegar from an 'am ha-arez must tithe it.(12)

Now does R`Judah hold [that] tamad is not liable to tithing, but we learned: He who makes tamad, pouring water on by measure, and [then] he finds the same quantity, is exempt [from tithing]:(13) but R`Judah declares him liable?(14)

This is what he says: The 'amme ha-arez were not under suspicion in connection with tamad.(15)

Alternatively, they were under suspicion, yet there is no difficulty: the one refers to [tamad made with] the straining bag; the other refers to [tamad made of] kernels.(16)

AND EGYPTIAN ZITHOM.

What is EGYPTIAN ZITHOM? -R`Joseph learned: [A concoction made of] a third part barley, a third part safflower, and a third part salt.

R`Papa omitted barley and substituted wheat.

And your token is 'sisane'.(17)

They soaked them [these ingredients], then roasted them, ground them and then drank them.

From the [Passover] sacrifice(18) until Pentecost, they who are constipated are relieved, while they who are diarrhoeic are bound.

[But] for an invalid and a pregnant woman it is dangerous.(19)

AND DYER'S BROTH.

Here it is explained: Bran water, with which lacca(20) is primed.

AND COOK'S DOUGH.

A loaf [i.e., dough] made of corn less than a third grown, which she places on the mouth of the pot and it absorbs the froth.

AND SCRIBES' PASTE.

Here it is explained: Shoemaker's paste.(21)

R`Shimi of Hozae(22) said: It is a toil paste used by the daughters of rich men, of which they leave [some] for the daughters of poor men.(23)

But that is not so, for R`Hiyya taught: They are four commodities of general use(24) and three manufacturing commodities.(25)

Now if you say that it is a toilet paste used by the daughters of rich men, what manufacturing commodities are there?(26)

What then; [it is] shoemaker's paste?

Then why does he call it SCRIBES' PASTE; he should say, cobbler's PASTE? - Said R`Oshaia to him: In truth it is shoemaker's paste; yet why does he call it: SCRIBES' PASTE?

Because scribes too stick their papyruses together with it.

R`ELIEZER SAID: WOMEN'S ORNAMENTS TOO etc. WOMENS' ORNAMENTS! can you think so!(27) Rather, say, WOMEN'S cosmetics TOO.

For Rab Judah said in Rab's name: [As to] the daughters of Israel


(1) I.e., which has not given birth to young.

(2) Rashi: three years old. - But it is doubtful if this would be called very old.

(3) I.e., what is beneficial for the heart is harmful to the eyes. etc.

(4) Zingiber, an Arabian spice plant, prob. ginger (Jast.) .

(5) The Yalkut omits b. Isaac; the text infra supports this omission.

(6) The wine was so good that without barley it would never turn sour.

(7) Ezek. XXVI, 2.

(8) Tyre - here represented as synonymous with Edom - and Jerusalem can neither both flourish simultaneously nor both be desolate simultaneously. - True religion and paganism are irrevocably opposed to each other, and the triumph of one must involve the defeat of the other.

(9) Gen. XXV, 23.

(10) V. Glos.

(11) An inferior wine made from the husks of grapes steeped in water. But it was definitely not from wine, for the wine was too good to turn into vinegar.

(12) Because it is probably from wine, which is nowadays of a poorer quality and readily turns vinegar. Of course, the 'am ha-arez himself should have tithed it, but they were suspected of neglecting tithes, and therefore the purchaser had to render tithe; v. Glos. s.v. Demai.

(13) Because it is mere water, though it has slightly absorbed the appearance and taste of wine from the husks and kernels.

(14) Because its appearance and taste determine its status as wine.

(15) Because it was so cheap that even they would not grudge its tithes.

(16) When tamad is made by pouring water over the lees in the strainer, it is wine, and is subject to tithes. But tamad made with kernels is merely coloured water, and is not subject to tithes at all. ;xuh hrga x a x

(17) 'Twigs'. R. Joseph () included barley () . both words containing an S ( and) and the two in 'sisane' serve as mnemonic for this.

(18) I.e., from Passover.

(19) Because its laxative properties are too great.

(20) So the reading in Maim. and Jast. Lacca is the juice of a plant, used for dyeing.

(21) Perura is a paste made of crumbs.

(22) The modern Khuzestan.

(23) It is a depilatory made of

(24) Lit., 'for the Country'.

(25) Thus he sums up the seven things mentioned in the MISHNAH:

(26) This is not all article used in manufacture.

(27) They have nothing to do with leaven.