פסחים  פרק  תשיעי   מי שהיה  ( צד: )       Pesachim 94b  ❃

בן בנו של נמרוד הרשע, שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עלי במלכותו.

כמה שנותיו של אדם - שבעים שנה, ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה.

שנאמר (תהלים צ) ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה, מן הארץ עד לרקיע - מהלך חמש מאות שנה, ועוביו של רקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה, ובין (כל) רקיע לרקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה, וכן בין כל רקיע ורקיע, (ישעיהו יד) אך אל שאול תורד אל ירכתי בור תיובתא.

תנו רבנן, חכמי ישראל אומרים: גלגל קבוע ומזלות חוזרין, וחכמי אומות העולם אומרים: גלגל חוזר ומזלות קבועין.

אמר רבי: תשובה לדבריהם - מעולם לא מצינו עגלה בדרום ועקרב בצפון.

מתקיף לה רב אחא בר יעקב: ודילמא כבוצינא דריחיא, אי נמי - כצינורא דדשא.

חכמי ישראל אומרים: ביום חמה מהלכת למטה מן הרקיע, ובלילה למעלה מן הרקיע.

וחכמי אומות העולם אומרים: ביום חמה מהלכת למטה מן הרקיע, ובלילה למטה מן הקרקע.

אמר רבי: ונראין דבריהן מדברינו, שביום מעינות צוננין ובלילה רותחין.

תניא, רבי נתן אומר: בימות החמה חמה מהלכת בגובה של רקיע, לפיכך כל העולם כולו רותח ומעינות צוננין.

בימות הגשמים חמה מהלכת בשיפולי רקיע, לפיכך כל העולם כולו צונן ומעינות רותחין.

תנו רבנן: בארבעה שבילין חמה מהלכת.

ניסן אייר וסיון מהלכת בהרים כדי לפשר את השלגין.

תמוז אב ואלול מהלכת בישוב כדי לבשל את הפירות.

תשרי מרחשון וכסליו מהלכת בימים כדי ליבש את הנהרות.

טבת שבט ואדר מהלכת במדבר שלא ליבש את הזרעים.

ורבי אליעזר אומר מאיסקופת כו'.

ואף על גב דמצי עייל, ולא אמרינן ליה קום עייל.

והתניא: ערל שלא מל ענוש כרת דברי רבי אליעזר אמר אביי: דרך רחוקה לטהור ואין דרך רחוקה לטמא.

רבא אמר: תנאי היא.

דתניא, רבי אליעזר אומר: נאמר ריחוק מקום בפסח, ונאמר ריחוק מקום במעשר.

מה להלן חוץ לאכילתו - אף כאן חוץ לאכילתו.

רבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי אליעזר: חוץ לעשייתו.

כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבי יצחק בר רב יוסף: בטמאים - הלך אחר רוב העומדין בעזרה.

כמאן - כרבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה שאמר משום רבי אליעזר.

אמר לו רבי יוסי לפיכך וכו'.

תניא, רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר: דרך שומע אני מהלך שנים או שלשה ימים, כשהוא אומר (במדבר ט) ובדרך לא היה - מגיד שמאסקופת העזרה ולחוץ קרוי דרך.


descendant of the wicked Nimrod, who incited the whole world to rebel [himrid](1) against Me during his reign!(2) How many are the years of man?

Seventy years; and if by reason of strength, eighty years, for it is said, The days of our years are threescore years and ten, or even by reason of strength fourscore years.(3)

Now from earth to heaven is a five hundred years journey, the thickness of heaven Is a five hundred years' journey, and between the first heaven and the next lies a five hundred years' journey, and similarly between each heaven,(4) 'Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, to the uttermost parts of the pit' -(5) This is [indeed] a refutation.

Our Rabbis taught: The Sages of Israel maintain: The Galgal(6) is stationary [fixed], while the mazzaloth(7) revolve; while the Sages of the nations of the world maintain: The Galgal revolves and the mazzaloth are stationary.(8)

Rabbi observed: This disproves their view [viz. ,] we never find the Wain in the south or Scorpio in the north.(9)

To this R`Aha B`Jacob demurred: Perhaps it is like the pivot(10) of a millstone,(11) or like the door socket?

The Sages of Israel maintain: The sun travels beneath the sky by day and above the sky at night; while the Sages of the nations of the world maintain: It travels beneath the sky by day and below the earth at night.

Said Rabbi: And their view is preferable to ours, for the wells are cold by day but warm at night.(12)

It was taught, R`Nathan said: In summer the sun travels in the heights of the heaven,(13) therefore the whole world is hot while the wells [springs] are cold; in winter the sun travels at the lower ends of the sky,(14) therefore the whole world is cold while the wells are hot.

Our Rabbis taught: The sun travels over four courses: [during] Nisan,(15) Iyar and Sivan, it travels over the mountains, in order to melt the snows; [in] Tammuz, Ab and Elul, over the inhabited world, to ripen the fruits; [in] Tishri, Marheshwan and Kislev, over seas, to dry up the rivers; in Tebeth, Shebat and Adar, through the wilderness, so as not to dry up the seeds [in the ground].

R`ELIEZER SAID: FROM THE THRESHOLD etc. Even though he can enter, and we do not say to him, 'Arise and enter'?

but it surely was taught: An uncircumcised Jew who did not circumcise himself is punished by kareth: this is the opinion of R`Eliezer? - Said Abaye: 'A journey afar off' [is stated] in respect of a clean person, but 'a journey afar off is not [stated] in respect of an unclean person.(16)

Raba said: It is [a controversy of] Tannaim.

For it was taught, R`Eliezer said: Distance of place is stated in connection with the Passover, and distance of place is stated in connection with tithe:(17) just as there [it means] without [the boundaries of] its eating,(18) so here too it means outside [the place of] its eating.(19)

R`Jose son of R`Judah said on R`Eliezer's authority: [It means] outside [the place] where it is sacrificed.(20)

With whom does the following dictum of R`Isaac son of R`Joseph agree.

[viz. :] In respect of those who are unclean, decide by the majority who are standing in the Temple Court.(21)

With whom [does it agree]?

With R`Jose son of R`Judah, as he stated [the law] on R`Eliezer's authority.(22)

SAID R`JOSE TO HIM, THEREFORE etc. It was taught, R`Jose the Galilean said: [BY] 'a journey afar off' I may understand a distance of two or three days: but when it is said, and is not in a journey, it teaches that from the threshold of the Temple Court and without is designated a journey.(23)

M I S H N A H


(1) This is a play on the name Nimrod, deriving it from marad, to rebel.

(2) According to Talmudic tradition Nimrod instigated the building of the tower of Babel to storm heaven.

(3) Ps. XC, 10.

(4) According to the ancient tradition there were seven heavens.

(5) Isa. XIV, 15. [In Hag. 13a the distance is further extended and according to the calculation given there amounts to a total of 4,096,000 years' journey, which at the rate of eighty rabbinic mils in 24 hours (v. supra) amounts to 119,603,200,000 say - 120,000 million mils, which shows that the Rabbis had a fair idea of stellar distance. Cf. Feldman, W. M., Rabbinical Mathematics, p. 213.]

(6) ['Wheel sphere' probably the celestial sphere, v. n. 7.]

(7) Here fixed stars.

(8) [This will probably represent the Ptolemaic view according to which the stars are fixed on the surface of the celestial sphere which moves round the earth carrying the stars with it, v. op. cit. p. 71.]

(9) But if the Galgal revolves, the mazzaloth too would change their position. The view of the Jewish Sages is difficult to explain.

(10) Rashi. 'Aruch: the socket.

(11) "Which remains fixed in its place.

(12) [On this passage v. op. cit. p. 72.]

(13) Above the earth.

(14) Not above the earth but at its side.

(15) The first month of the Jewish civil year, commencing some time in March. The remaining eleven months are enumerated in order.

(16) v. supra 93b. Similarly, a man must make himself fit for the Passover, and otherwise he incurs kareth. But it is not his duty to bring himself within the area of obligation. Tosaf. points out an obvious difficulty: if he is uncircumcised or unclean and standing without the Temple court, as he must be in that case, he must make himself fit and keep the Passover on penalty of kareth; whereas if he is already circumcised or clean and standing without he is exempt! Tosaf explains it with the principle laid down by R. Zera, v. Yeb. 104b.

(17) Deut. XIV, 24 q.v.

(18) The second tithe must be eaten in Jerusalem. Anywhere outside Jerusalem is regarded as a distant place and the law of redemption applies.

(19) When Scripture states that if a man is on a journey afar off he is exempt, it means if he is anywhere outside Jerusalem, in the whole of which the Passover-offering was eaten. Hence if he is merely outside the Temple Court but in Jerusalem he is not exempt.

(20) viz., the Temple Court. Thus we have a controversy of Tannaim as to R. Eliezer's view.

(21) when the majority of those in the Temple Court are unclean, the Passover is sacrificed in uncleanness (supra 79a) . But those who are not in the Temple Court are disregarded entirely. as they are on a 'journey afar off'.

(22) For according to the first Tanna a majority of all in Jerusalem would be required.

(23) Since 'afar off' is not mentioned here.