סנהדרין  פרק  אחד עשרה   חלק  ( קא: )       Sanhedrin 101b  ❃

(משלי כ"א) גם אלה משלי שלמה אשר העתיקו אנשי חזקיה מלך יהודה.

וכי חזקיה מלך יהודה לכל העולם כולו לימד תורה, ולמנשה בנו לא לימד תורה?

אלא: מכל טורח שטרח בו, ומכל עמל שעמל בו - לא העלהו למוטב אלא יסורין, שנאמר (דברי הימים ב' ל"ג) וידבר ה' אל מנשה ואל עמו ולא הקשיבו ויבא ה' עליהם את שרי הצבא אשר למלך אשור וילכדו את מנשה בחחים ויאסרהו בנחשתים ויוליכהו בבלה, וכתיב (דברי הימים ב' ל"ג) וכהצר לו חלה את פני ה' אלהיו ויכנע מאד מלפני (ה') אלהי אבותיו ויתפלל אליו ויעתר לו וישמע תחנתו וישיבהו ירושלים למלכותו וידע מנשה כי ה' הוא האלהים.

הא למדת שחביבין יסורין.

תנו רבנן: שלשה באו בעלילה, אלו הן: קין, עשו, ומנשה.

קין - דכתיב (בראשית ד') גדול עוני מנשוא.

אמר לפניו: רבונו של עולם כלום גדול עוני מששים ריבוא שעתידין לחטוא לפניך, ואתה סולח להם?

עשו דכתיב (בראשית כ"ז) הברכה אחת היא לך אבי.

מנשה - בתחילה קרא לאלוהות הרבה, ולבסוף קרא לאלהי אבותיו.

אבא שאול אומר אף ההוגה את השם באותיותיו וכו'.

תנא: ובגבולין, ובלשון עגה.

שלשה מלכים וארבעה הדיוטות וכו'.

תנו רבנן: ירבעם - שריבע עם.

דבר אחר: ירבעם - שעשה מריבה בעם.

דבר אחר: ירבעם - שעשה מריבה בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים.

בן נבט - בן שניבט ולא ראה.

תנא: הוא נבט, הוא מיכה, הוא שבע בן בכרי.

נבט - שניבט ולא ראה, מיכה - שנתמכמך בבנין, ומה שמו - שבע בן בכרי שמו.

תנו רבנן: שלשה ניבטו ולא ראו ואלו הן: נבט, ואחיתופל, ואיצטגניני פרעה.

נבט ראה אש שיוצאת מאמתו, הוא סבר איהו מליך, ולא היא - ירבעם הוא דנפק מיניה.

אחיתופל ראה צרעת שזרחה לו על אמתו, הוא סבר איהו מלך, ולא היא - בת שבע בתו הוא דנפקא מינה שלמה.

איצטגניני פרעה - דאמר רבי חמא ברבי חנינא: מאי דכתיב (במדבר כ') המה מי מריבה - המה שראו איצטגניני פרעה וטעו.

ראו שמושיען של ישראל במים הוא לוקה, אמר (שמות א') כל הבן הילוד היארה תשליכהו, והן לא ידעו שעל עסקי מי מריבה לוקה.

ומנא לן דלא אתי לעלמא דאתי - דכתיב (מלכים א' י"ג) ויהי בדבר הזה לחטאת בית ירבעם ולהכחיד ולהשמיד מעל פני אדמה.

להכחיד - בעולם הזה, ולהשמיד - לעולם הבא.

אמר רבי יוחנן: מפני מה זכה ירבעם למלכות - מפני שהוכיח את שלמה.

ומפני מה נענש - מפני שהוכיחו ברבים.

שנאמר (מלכים א' י"א) וזה הדבר אשר הרים יד במלך שלמה בנה את המלוא סגר את פרץ עיר דוד אביו.

אמר לו: דוד אביך פרץ פרצות בחומה כדי שיעלו ישראל לרגל, ואתה גדרת אותם כדי לעשות אנגריא לבת פרעה?

ומאי וזה אשר הרים יד במלך?

אמר רב נחמן: שחלץ תפיליו בפניו.

אמר רב נחמן: גסות הרוח שהיה בו בירבעם טרדתו מן העולם, שנאמר (מלכים א' י"ב) ויאמר ירבעם בלבו עתה תשוב הממלכה לבית דוד אם יעלה העם הזה לעשות זבחים בבית ה' בירושלים ושב לב העם הזה אל אדניהם אל רחבעם מלך יהודה והרגני ושבו אל רחבעם מלך יהודה.

אמר, גמירי: דאין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית יהודה בלבד, כיון דחזו ליה לרחבעם דיתיב ואנא קאימנא סברי: הא מלכא והא עבדא.

ואי יתיבנא - מורד במלכות הואי, וקטלין לי, ואזלו בתריה.

מיד (מלכים א' י"ב) ויועץ המלך ויעש שני עגלי זהב ויאמר אלהם רב לכם מעלות ירושלים הנה אלהיך ישראל אשר העלוך מארץ מצרים וישם את האחד בבית אל ואת האחד נתן בדן.

מאי ויועץ?

אמר רבי יהודה: שהושיב רשע אצל צדיק.

אמר להו: חתמיתו על כל דעבידנא?

- אמרו ליה: הין.

- אמר להו: מלכא בעינא למיהוי.

- אמרו ליה: הין.

- כל דאמינא לכו עבידתו?

- אמרו ליה: הין.

- אפילו למפלח לעבודה זרה?

- אמר ליה צדיק: חס וחלילה - אמר ליה רשע לצדיק: סלקא דעתך דגברא כירבעם פלח לעבודה זרה?

אלא למינסינהו הוא דקא בעי, אי קבליתו למימריה.


These are also the proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied out.(1)

Now, would Hezekiah king of Judah have taught the Torah to the whole world, yet not to his own son Manasseh?

But all the pains he spent upon him, and all the labours he lavished upon him did not bring him back to the right path, save suffering alone, as it is written, And the Lord spoke to Manasseh and to his people: but they would not hearken unto him.

Wherefore the Lord brought upon them the captains of the host of the king of Assyria, which took Manasseh among the thorns, and bound him with fetters, and carried him to Babylon.(2)

And it is further written, And when he was in affliction, he besought the Lord his God, and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers.

And prayed unto him, and he was entreated of him, and heard his supplication, and brought him again to Jerusalem unto his kingdom, and Manasseh knew that the Lord he was God.(3)

Thus thou learnest how precious is suffering.'

Our Rabbis taught: Three came with a circuitous plea.(4)

viz. , Cain, Esau and Manasseh.

Cain - for it is written, [And Cain said unto the Lord.] is my sin too great to be forgiven?(5)

He pleaded thus before Him: 'Sovereign of the Universe! Is my sin greater than that of the six hundred thousand [Israelites] who are destined to sin before Thee, yet wilt Thou pardon them!' Esau - for it is written, [And Esau said unto his father,] Hast thou but one blessing, my father?(6)

Manasseh - he first called upon many deities, and [only] eventually called upon the God of his fathers.(7)

ABBA SAUL SAID: ALSO HE WHO PRONOUNCES THE DIVINE NAME AS IT IS SPELT etc. It has been taught: [This holds good] only in the country,(8) and in the sense of [the Samaritan] aga [blaspheming].(9)

THREE KINGS AND FOUR COMMONERS etc. Our Rabbis taught: [The name] Jeroboam [denotes] that 'he debased the nation.'(10) Another meaning is that 'he fomented strife amongst the nation.'(11) Another explanation, that 'he caused strife between Israel and their Father in Heaven.'(12) The son of Nebat denotes that 'he beheld, but did not see.'(13)

A Tanna taught: Nebat, Micah, and Sheba the son of Bichri are one and the same.(14)

[He was called] Nebat, because 'he beheld but did not see'; Micah, because 'he was crushed(15) in the building';(16) and what was his real name? - Sheba the son of Bichri.

Our Rabbis taught: Three beheld but did not see, viz. , Nebat, Ahitophel, and Pharaoh's astrologers.

Nebat - he saw fire issuing from him.

He interpreted it [as signifying] that he would reign,(17) yet that was not so, but that Jeroboam would issue from him.

Ahitophel, - he beheld leprosy breaking out in him.

He thought that it meant that he would reign,(18) but it was not so, but referred to Bath Sheba, his daughter,(19) from whom issued Solomon.

Pharaoh's astrologers, - even as R`Hama son of R`Hanina said: What is meant by This is the water of Meribah?(20) 'This is' what Pharaoh's astrologers saw, but erred [in its interpretation].

They saw that Israel's Saviour would be smitten through water: therefore he [Pharaoh] ordered, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river;(21) but they did not know that he was to be smitten [i.e., punished] on account of the water of Meribah.

Now whence do we know that he [Jeroboam] will not enter the future world? - Because it is written, And this thing became sin unto the house of Jeroboam even to cut it off and to destroy it from off the face of the earth:(22) 'to cut it off' [implies] in this world; 'and to destroy it,' in the next.

R`Johanan said: Why did Jeroboam merit sovereignty?

Because he reproved Solomon.

And why was he punished?

Because he reproved him publicly.

As it is written, And this was the cause that he lifted up his hand against the king: Solomon built Millo, and repaired the breaches of the city of David his father.(23)

He said thus to him: Thy father David made breaches in the wall, that Israel might come up [to Jerusalem] on the Festivals; whilst thou hast closed them, in order to exact toll for the benefit of Pharaoh's daughter.(24)

What is meant by And this was the cause that he lifted up his hand against the king?(25) - R`Nahman said: He took off his phylacteries in front of him.(26)

R`Nahman said: The conceit which possessed Jeroboam drove him out of the world,(27) as it is written, Now Jeroboam said in his heart, Now shall the kingdom return to the house of David: if this people go up to do sacrifice in the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this people turn unto their Lord, even unto Rehoboam king of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again to Rehoboam king of Judah.(28)

He reasoned thus: it is a tradition that none but the kings of the house of Judah may sit in the Temple Court.(29)

Now, when they [the people] see Rehoboam sitting and me standing, they will say, The former is the king and the latter his subject; whilst if I sit too, I am guilty of treason,(30) and they will slay me, and follow him.

Straightway, Wherefore the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold, and said unto them, it is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.(31)

How did he 'take counsel'? - R Judah said: He set a wicked man by the side of the righteous [in the council chamber] and said to him, 'Will ye sign [your approval] of all that I may do? ' They replied, 'Yes.'

'I wish to be king,' he went on; and they again said, 'Yes.'

'Will ye execute all my commands? ' he asked.

Again they replied 'Yes.'

'Even for the worship of idols? ' Whereupon the righteous man rejoined, 'God forbid!' 'But,' urged the wicked upon the righteous, 'dost thou really think that a man like Jeroboam would serve idols?

He only wishes to test us, to see whether we will give full acceptance to his orders? '(32)


(1) Prov. XXV, 1. This implies than they copied it out for general instruction. Cf. also supra 94a, that Hezekiah had the whole nation taught.

(2) II Chron. XXXIII, 10f.

(3) Ibid. 12f.

(4) Preferring their request as a right, not a favour.

(5) Gen. IV, 13.

(6) Ibid. XXVII, 38: thus he justified his demand for a blessing.

(7) This is deduced from, And when he was in affliction, he besought the Lord his God-implying that he had prayed to other deities before. 'If thou wilt not hearken to my prayer, he pleaded, 'of what profit was my turning to thee?'

(8) As opposed to the Temple. ihgc,ans ht,uf ihkht iudf cehu

(9) [So Levy, who quotes J. Sanh. X, 28b in a way as those Samaritans swear: 'he blasphemed', Lev. XXIV, tdtu 11, is rendered by the Samaritan Targum . S. Krauss, Sanh-Mak. p. 271, translates: 'in a corrupt, barbarous language,' debasing thereby the Holy Name; cf. Rashi.] ogn gchr

(10)

(11) By his introduction of calf worship. chr

(12) The latter two connect Jeroboam with rib, strife. ycb

(13) He beheld a vision, but did not understand (see) its true significance. The vision is stated below. - Nebat is here connected with root , nabat, to see.

(14) Micah was a resident of Mount Ephraim who established a private idolatrous shrine and engaged a Levite to minister therein. - Judges XVII, 1-5. This image was subsequently stolen and set up in Dan; Ibid. XVIII. Sheba the son of Bichri was an Ephraimite who revolted against David immediately after the collapse of Absalom's insurrection; II Sam. XX, 1 et seqq. lnfn,b vfhn

(15) with which is connected.

(16) According to legend, when the Israelites in Egypt did not complete their tale of bricks, their children were built into the walls instead. On Moses' complaining thereof to God, He answered him that he was thus weeding out the destined wicked. As proof, he was empowered to save Micah, who had already been built in, but only to become an idolater on his reaching manhood. Rashi also gives an alternative rendering: he became impoverished (Cf. Lev. XXV, 25; XXVII, 8) through building - presumably his idolatrous shrine.

(17) And hence he raised the standard of revolt.

(18) According to legend (infra 107a) , David was smitten with leprosy for six months on account of his sin with Bath Sheba. Ahitophel therefore interpreted the outbreak on his own person as shewing that David's leprosy would bring him to the throne.

(19) I.e., his granddaughter. Her father Eliam (II Sam. XI, 3) being identified with the son of Ahitophel (II Sam. XXIII, 34) .

(20) Num. XX, 13.

(21) Ex. I, 22.

(22) I Kings. XIII, 34.

(23) Ibid. XI, 27.

(24) Very few openings were left, so that visitors to Jerusalem could be checked and taxed for the privilege.

(25) I.e., what did he actually do?

(26) This was regarded as a mark of disrespect. Another version: he removed his phylacteries, so as to be unconstrained in his abuse of Solomon, which he would not wish to do with these religious symbols upon him.

(27) I.e., led him into destruction.

(28) I Kings XII, 26f.

(29) This was a special prerogative of Davidic kings. V. Kid. 78a, and cf. Josephus Ant. VIII, 4, 2.

(30) Lit., 'a rebel against royal authority.'

(31) Ibid. 28.

(32) Thus he received the signature of the righteous under false pretences, and it could not be subsequently withdrawn.