יבמות  פרק  שישי   הבא על יבמתו  ( סב: )       Yevamoth 62b  ❃

בני בנים הרי הן כבנים כי תניא ההיא - להשלים.

מיתיבי: בני בנים הרי הם כבנים, מת אחד מהם או שנמצא סריס - לא קיים פריה ורביה תיובתא דרב הונא תיובתא.

בני בנים הרי הם כבנים.

סבר אביי למימר: ברא לברא וברתא לברתא, וכ"ש ברא לברתא, אבל ברתא לברא לא א"ל רבא: לשבת יצרה בעיא, והא איכא.

דכולי עלמא מיהת - תרי מחד לא, ולא?

והא אמרי ליה רבנן לרב ששת: נסיב איתתא ואוליד בני, ואמר להו: בני ברתי בני נינהו התם דחויי קמדחי להו, דרב ששת איעקר מפירקיה דרב הונא.

אמר ליה רבה לרבא בר מארי: מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן בני בנים הרי הן כבנים?

אילימא מדכתיב: (בראשית ל"א) הבנות בנותי והבנים בני, אלא מעתה, והצאן צאני הכי נמי?

אלא דקנית מינאי, הכא נמי דקנית מינאי אלא מהכא: (דברי הימים א' ב') ואחר בא חצרון אל בת מכיר אבי גלעד ותלד לו את שגוב, וכתיב: (שופטים ה') מני מכיר ירדו מחוקקים, וכתיב: (תהלים ס, ק"ח) יהודה מחוקקי.

מתניתין דלאו כרבי יהושע דתניא, רבי יהושע אומר: - נשא אדם אשה בילדותו - ישא אשה בזקנותו, היו לו בנים בילדותו - יהיו לו בנים בזקנותו, שנא': (קהלת י"א) בבקר זרע את זרעך ולערב אל תנח ידך כי אינך יודע אי זה יכשר הזה או זה ואם שניהם כאחד טובים ר"ע אומר: למד תורה בילדותו - ילמוד תורה בזקנותו, היו לו תלמידים בילדותו - יהיו לו תלמידים בזקנותו, שנא': בבקר זרע את זרעך וגו'.

אמרו: שנים עשר אלף זוגים תלמידים היו לו לרבי עקיבא, מגבת עד אנטיפרס, וכולן מתו בפרק אחד מפני שלא נהגו כבוד זה לזה, והיה העולם שמם, עד שבא ר"ע אצל רבותינו שבדרום, ושנאה להם ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ורבי שמעון ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע, והם הם העמידו תורה אותה שעה.

תנא: כולם מתו מפסח ועד עצרת.

אמר רב חמא בר אבא, ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבין: כולם מתו מיתה רעה.

מאי היא?

א"ר נחמן: אסכרה.

א"ר מתנא: הלכה כרבי יהושע.

אמר רבי תנחום א"ר חנילאי: כל אדם שאין לו אשה - שרוי בלא שמחה, בלא ברכה, בלא טובה בלא שמחה - דכתיב: (דברים י"ד) ושמחת אתה וביתך, בלא ברכה - דכתיב: (יחזקאל מ"ד) להניח ברכה אל ביתך, בלא טובה - דכתיב: (בראשית ב') לא טוב היות האדם לבדו.

במערבא אמרי: בלא תורה, בלא חומה בלא תורה - דכתיב: (איוב ו') האם אין עזרתי בי ותושיה נדחה ממני, בלא חומה - דכתיב: (ירמיהו לא) נקבה תסובב גבר.

רבא בר עולא אמר: בלא שלום, דכתיב: (איוב ה') וידעת כי שלום אהלך ופקדת נוך ולא תחטא.

אמר ריב"ל: כל היודע באשתו שהיא יראת שמים ואינו פוקדה - נקרא חוטא, שנאמר: וידעת כי שלום אהלך וגו'.

ואמר ריב"ל: חייב אדם לפקוד את אשתו בשעה שהוא יוצא לדרך, שנא': וידעת כי שלום אהלך וגו'.

הא מהכא נפקא?

מהתם נפקא: ואל אישך תשוקתך - מלמד, שהאשה משתוקקת על בעלה בשעה שהוא יוצא לדרך א"ר יוסף.

לא נצרכה אלא סמוך לווסתה.

וכמה?

אמר רבא: עונה.

והני מילי לדבר הרשות, אבל לדבר מצוה - מיטרידי.

ת"ר: האוהב את אשתו כגופו, והמכבדה יותר מגופו, והמדריך בניו ובנותיו בדרך ישרה, והמשיאן סמוך לפירקן, עליו הכתוב אומר: וידעת כי שלום אהלך.

האוהב את שכיניו, והמקרב את קרוביו, והנושא את בת אחותו,


Grandchildren are like children!(1) - This was taught only in respect of supplementing.(2)

An objection was raised: Grandchildren are like children.

If one of them died or was found to be a saris(3) the father has not fulfilled the duty of propagation.(4)

Is not this a refutation against R`Huna?(5) - It is indeed a refutation.'

Grandchildren are like children'.

Abaye intended to say: A grandson for a son and a granddaughter for a daughter, and certainly a grandson for a daughter; but not a granddaughter for a son.(6)

But Raba said to him: We only require [the fulfilment of the text] He formed it to be inhabited,(7) which is the case here.

All, at any rate, agree(8) that two children of one(9) are not sufficient.

But [are they] not?

The Rabbis surely said to R`Shesheth,(10) 'Marry a wife and beget children', and he answered them, 'My daughters' children are mine'! - There he was merely putting them off, because R`Shesheth became impotent owing to the long discourses of R`Huna.(11)

Said Rabbah to Raba B`Mari: Whence the statement made by the Rabbis that grandchildren are like children?

If it be suggested that it is deduced from the Scriptural text, The daughters are my daughters and the children are my children,(12) would then [it may be objected] the same [meaning be given to the text] And the flocks are my flocks?(12)

But [the meaning there is obviously] 'which you have acquired from me', so here also [the meaning may be], 'which you have acquired from me'! The deduction is rather made from the following:(13) And afterwards Hezron went to the daughter of Machir the father of Gilead;.

and she bore him Segub,(14) and it is also written, Out of Machir came down lawgivers,(15) and furthermore it is written, Judah is my lawgiver.(16)

Our Mishnah(17) cannot represent the opinion of R`Joshua.

For it was taught: R`Joshua said, If a man married in his youth, he should marry again in his old age; if he had children in his youth, he should also have children in his old age; for it said, In the morning(18) sow thy seed and in the evening(19) withhold not thine hand; for thou knowest not which shall prosper, whether this or that, or whether they shall both be alike good.(20)

R`Akiba said: If a man studied Torah in his youth, he should also study it in his old age; if he had disciples in his youth, he should also have disciples in his old age.

For it is said, In the morning sow thy seed etc.(20)

It was said that R`Akiba had twelve thousand pairs of disciples, from Gabbatha(21) to Antipatris;(22) and all of them died at the same time because they did not treat each other with respect.

The world remained desolate(23) until R`Akiba came to our Masters in the South and taught the Torah to them.

These were R`Meir, R`Judah, R`Jose, R`Simeon and R`Eleazar B`Shammua; and it was they who revived the Torah at that time.

A Tanna taught: All of them(24) died between Passover and Pentecost.

R`Hama B`Abba or, it might be said, R`Hiyya B`Abin said: All of them died a cruel death.

What was it? -R`Nahman replied: Croup.(25)

R`Mattena stated: The halachah is in agreement with R`Joshua.(26)

R`Tanhum stated in the name of R`Hanilai: Any man who has no wife lives without joy, without blessing, and without goodness.'

Without joy'.

for it is written.

And thou shalt rejoice, thou and thy house.(27) 'Without blessing', for it is written, To cause a blessing to rest on thy house.(28) 'Without goodness', for it is written, I is not good that the man should be alone.(29)

In the West(30) it was stated:(31) Without Torah and without a [protecting] wall.'

Without Torah', for it is written.

Is it that I have no help(32) in me, and that sound wisdom(33) is driven quite from me.(34) 'Without a [protecting] wall', for it is written, A woman shall encompass a man.(35)

Raba B`'Ulla said:(31) Without peace, for it is written, And thou shalt know that thy tent(36) is in peace; and thou shalt visit thy habitation and shalt miss nothing.(37)

R`Joshua B`Levi said: Whosoever knows his wife to be a God-fearing woman and does not duly visit her is called a sinner; for it is said, And thou shalt know that thy tent is in peace(38) etc.(39)

R`Joshua B`Levi further stated: It is a man's duty to pay a visit to his wife when he starts on a journey; it is said, And thou shalt know that thy tent is in peace etc.(37)

Is this(40) deduced from here?

Surely it is deduced from the following:(41) And thy desire shall be to thy husband(42) teaches that a woman yearns for her husband when he sets out on a journey! - R`Joseph replied: This(43) was required only in the case where her menstruation period was near.(44)

And how near?

Rabbah(45) replied: Twelve hours.(46)

And this(47) applies only [when the journey is] for a secular purpose, but when for a religious purpose [it does not apply, since then] people are in a state of anxiety.(48)

Our Rabbis taught: Concerning a man who loves his wife as himself, who honours her more than himself, who guides his sons and daughters in the right path and arranges for them to be married near the period of their puberty, Scripture says, And thou shalt know that thy tent is in peace.(49)

Concerning him who loves his neighbours, who befriends his relatives, marries his sister's(50) daughter,


(1) Infra 70a. It is now assumed that whenever one's own child died the grandchild may take his place in exempting his grandfather from the duty of propagation. From this it follows that only living children or grandchildren exempt a man from the duty of further propagation. How then could R. Huna maintain that dead children also exempt one from this duty?

(2) If a man had only one son he is exempt from the duty of propagation if his son had a daughter. If, however, he once had a male and a female who subsequently died he is in any case exempt.

(3) V. Glos.

(4) Tosef. Yeb. VIII.

(5) Cf. supra note 1, final clause.

(6) I.e., a granddaughter cannot take the place of a son to exempt one from the duty of further propagation.

(7) Isa. XLV, 18.

(8) Lit., 'all the world', i.e., Abaye and Raba.

(9) Son or daughter.

(10) Others, 'Abba b. Zabda'. V. She'iltoth. Sec. ha-Berakah.

(11) The discourses being long, R. Shesheth, in his desire not to interrupt them, suppressed his needs and thus impaired his generative organs. V. Bek. 44b.

(12) Gen. XXXI, 43.

(13) Lit., 'from here'.

(14) I Chron. II, 21.

(15) Judges V, 14.

(16) Ps. LX, 9. As this text implies that the lawgivers were descendants of Judah, Machir (Judges V, 14) , a descendant of Manasseh, could not have been the paternal, but only the maternal ancestor of the lawgivers that descended from him. The lawgivers were thus the offspring of the union mentioned in I Chron. II, 21, between Hezron, a descendant of Judah, and a daughter of Machir. This then proves that the sons of one's daughter are also regarded as one's own sons.

(17) Which permits abstention from further propagation after the birth of the prescribed number of children.

(18) I.e., 'the morning of life', youth.

(19) I.e., 'old age'. V. supra n. 5.

(20) Eccl. XI, 6.

(21) Gibbethon, in the territory of Dan.

(22) N.N.W. of Jerusalem.

(23) Through lack of learning.

(24) The disciples of R. Akiba. vrfxt rfx

(25) (rt. , 'stop', 'choke') .

(26) Supra, that the duty of propagation never ceases. ,hc

(27) Deut. XIV, 26. House, refers to one's wife. Cf. Yoma 2a.

(28) Ezek. XLIV, 30. Cf. supra n. 3.

(29) Gen. II, 18.

(30) Palestine.

(31) Concerning the unmarried man.

(32) I.e., 'a wife'. Cf. A help meet for him, Gen. II, 18. vhau,

(33) , the Torah.

(34) Job VI, 13.

(35) Jer. XXXI, 22. Cf. R.V.

(36) I.e., wife. Cf. M.K. and supra note 3.

(37) Job V, 24. ouka oka

(38) I.e., 'that thy wife is in peace with God' sc. 'chaste', or. reading as , 'perfect'.

(39) Ibid., then thou shalt visit etc.

(40) The duty of visiting prior to setting out on a journey.

(41) Lit., 'from there'.

(42) Gen. III, 16.

(43) The statement as to the duty of visiting.

(44) At the time he sets out on his journey. When no journey is contemplated one must keep away from his wife when the menstruation period is near. V. Shebu. 18b.

(45) Cur. edd., 'Raba'. vbug

(46) lit., 'period'. i.e., a whole day or a whole night. If the menstruation occurs during the day, he must keep away throughout that day, and if during the night, he must keep away during all that night.

(47) The duty of visiting prior to setting out on a journey.

(48) Or, 'they might be preoccupied' and thus delay the journey and neglect the performance of the religious act.

(49) Job V, 24.

(50) This is a meritorious act, because the affection a man has for his sister will be extended to her daughter, his wife.