יבמות  פרק  ראשון   חמש עשרה נשים  ( ו: )       Yevamoth 6b  ❃

לא משבת אתה מתיירא אלא ממי שהזהיר על השבת, אף מורא האמורה במקדש - לא ממקדש אתה מתיירא אלא ממי שהזהיר על המקדש.

ואי זו היא מורא מקדש?

לא יכנס אדם בהר הבית במקלו, במנעלו, בפונדתו, ובאבק שעל גבי רגליו, ולא יעשנו קפנדריא, ורקיקה מק"ו ואין לי אלא בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים, בזמן שאין בהמ"ק קיים מנין?

ת"ל: (ויקרא י"ט) את שבתותי תשמורו ומקדשי תיראו, מה שמירה האמורה בשבת לעולם, אף מורא האמורה במקדש לעולם.

אלא, סד"א תיתי מהבערה דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל: (שמות ל"ה) לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם - מה ת"ל?

מה ת"ל?

אי לרבי יוסי - לאו, אי לר' נתן - לחלק דתניא: הבערה ללאו יצתה, דברי ר' יוסי, רבי נתן אומר: לחלק ואמר רבא: תנא, מושבות קא קשיא ליה, מושבות מה ת"ל?

מכדי שבת חובת הגוף היא, וחובת הגוף נוהגת בין בארץ בין בח"ל, מושבות דכתב רחמנא בשבת למה לי?

משום רבי ישמעאל אמר תלמיד אחד, לפי שנאמר: (דברים כ"א) וכי יהיה באיש חטא משפט מות והומת, שומע אני בין בחול בין בשבת, ומה אני מקיים (שמות ל"א) מחלליה מות יומת?

בשאר מלאכות חוץ ממיתת ב"ד, או אינו אלא אפילו מיתת ב"ד, ומה אני מקיים והומת?

בחול ולא בשבת, או אינו אלא אפילו בשבת?

ת"ל: לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם, ולהלן הוא אומר: (במדבר ל"ה) והיו אלה לכם לחוקת משפט לדורותיכם בכל מושבותיכם, מה מושבות האמורים להלן - בב"ד, אף מושבות האמורים כאן - בב"ד, ואמר רחמנא לא תבערו מאי לאו רבי נתן היא, דאמר: לחלק יצתה, וטעמא דכתב רחמנא לא תבערו, הא לאו הכי - דחי לא, רבי יוסי.

ותיהוי נמי ר' יוסי, אימר דאמר רבי יוסי הבערה ללאו יצתה - הבערה גרידתא, הבערה דב"ד - בישול פתילה הוא, וא"ר ששת: מה לי בישול פתילה, מה לי בישול סמנין אמר רב שימי בר אשי: האי תנא, לא משום דאתי עשה ודחי ל"ת, אלא משום דמייתי מק"ו, וה"ק: מה אני מקיים מחלליה מות יומת?

בשאר מלאכות חוץ ממיתת ב"ד, אבל מיתת ב"ד דחיא שבת מק"ו:


one does not reverence the Sabbath but Him who ordered the observance of the Sabbath, so in the case of 'reverence' used in relation to the Sanctuary, one is not to reverence the Sanctuary but Him who gave the commandment concerning the Sanctuary.

And what is regarded as the 'reverence of the Sanctuary'? - A man shall not enter the Temple mount(1) with his stick, shoes or money bag(2) or with dust upon his feet, nor may he use it for making a short cut;(3) and spitting [is there forbidden] by inference a minori ad majus.(4)

This, however, might apply(5) only to the time when the Sanctuary was in existence; whence is it deduced that the same holds good of the time when the Sanctuary no longer exists?

It was expressly stated in Scripture, Ye shall keep My Sabbaths, and reverence My Sanctuary;(6) as the 'keeping' that was used in relation to the Sabbath holds good forever, so also the 'reverence' used in relation to the Sanctuary must hold good forever.(7)

Really [the reason(8) is because] it might have been assumed that this(9) should be derived from the prohibition of kindling a fire [on the Sabbath].

For a Tanna of the School of R`Ishmael taught: Wherefore was it stated, Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations?(10) 'Wherefore 'was it stated'!(11) Surely if one is to follow R`Jose, it was to intimate that [kindling a fire on the Sabbath is] a prohibition only;(12) and, if one is to follow R`Nathan, it was to intimate that even a single transgression involves one in the prescribed penalties;(13) for it was taught: 'The prohibition of kindling a fire [on the Sabbath] was mentioned separately(14) in order to [indicate that its transgression is] a prohibition only;(15) so R`Jose, while R`Nathan maintains that the intention was to intimate that even a single transgression involves the offender in the prescribed penalties'!(13) And Raba explained that the Tanna(16) found difficult the expression of habitations,(17) [arguing thus]: What need was there for Scripture to state 'habitations'?

[Is not this(18) obvious? ] For consider: The observance of the Sabbath is a personal obligation, and any personal obligation is valid both in the Land [of Israel] and outside the land;(19) what need, then, was there for the All Merciful to write it(20) in connection with the Sabbath?

This was explained by a disciple in the name of R`Ishmael: Whereas it was stated in the Scriptures, And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death,(21) one might infer [that the death penalty may be executed] both on week-days and on the Sabbath and, as regards the application of the text, Everyone that profaneth it(22) shall surely be put to death,(23) this might be said to refer to the several kinds of labour other than the execution of a judicial death sentence; or again it might be inferred(24) that it(25) refers even to a judicial execution of a death sentence and, as regards the application of He shall surely be put to death(23) [this might be said to refer] to week-days but not to the Sabbath; or again i might be thought(26) to apply also to the Sabbath; hence it was expressly stated, Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations,(27) and further on it is stated, And these things shall be for a statute of judgmen unto you throughout your generations in all your habitations;(28) as the expression of 'habitations' mentioned below(28) refers to the Beth din, so the expression 'habitations' mentioned here(27) refers also to the Beth din, and concerning this the All Merciful said, 'Ye shall kindle no fire'.(29)

Now, are we not to assume this statement to be in agreement with the view(30) of R`Nathan who holds that the object was to intimate that even a single transgression involves the offender in the prescribed penalties,(31) and the reason(32) is because the All Merciful has written, Ye shall kindle no fire,(27) but had that not been the case it would have superseded the [Sabbath]!(33) - No; this may be according to R`Jose.(34)

Granted, however, [that it is according to the view of] R`Jose, might it not be suggested that R`Jose said that 'kindling a fire [on the Sabbath] is mentioned separately in order to indicate that it is a mere prohibitio [in the case only of] ordinary burning; the burning by the Beth din,(35) [however, is surely a case of] boiling of the metal bar(36) concerning which R`Shesheth said that there is no difference between the boiling of a metal bar and the boiling of dyes?(37) - R`Shimi B`Ashi replied: This Tanna(38) [requires Scriptural texts] not because elsewhere he holds that a positive precept supersedes a prohibition, but because this(39) might have been obtained by inference a minori ad majus; and it is this that he meant to say: 'As regards the application of the text, Every one that profaneth it(40) shall surely be put to death,(41) it might have been said to apply to the several kinds of labour other than that of the execution of a judicial death sentence, but that a judicial death sentence does supersede the Sabbath, by inference a minori ad majus:


(1) On which the Sanctuary stood. vsbup

(2) , Lat. funda. Others, 'a hollow girdle in which money is kept'. thrsbpe

(3) , cf. compendiaria.

(4) Bet. 54a. For an explanation of the inference, v. ibid. 62b.

(5) Lit., 'it is not (known) to me'.

(6) Lev. XIX, 30.

(7) And since there is no superfluous verse to extend the principle in such a case as levirate marriage, the question remains, what need was there for the text ''aleha'.

(8) Cf. supra p. 22, n. 7.

(9) Cf. supra p. 22, n. 8.

(10) Ex. XXXV, 3.

(11) The prohibition of kindling a fire, surely, is included in the general prohibition of labour on Sabbath.

(12) I.e., only a negative commandment the transgression of which does not, like the other Sabbath offences, involve the penalties of stoning or kareth. The former, if the offender was warned beforehand of the consequence of his offence, the latter, where no such warning had been given.

(13) Lit., 'to divide', i.e., one of the thirty-nine kinds of labour that are forbidden on the Sabbath was singly specified in order to indicate that to incur the prescribed penalties it is not necessary to commit all the thirty-nine transgressions (as the one general, all-embracing prohibition of about might have seemed to imply) . The mention of one prohibition (kindling of fire) separately breaks up, so to speak, (divides) , all the others into single units, indicating that, as in its own case, so in that of all the others first mentioned together with it, every single transgression involves the penalty of stoning, kareth, or a sin-offering.

(14) Lit., 'went out'.

(15) V. p. 24, n. 12.

(16) Who asked, supra, 'wherefore was it stated?'

(17) Ex. XXXV, 3.

(18) That the prohibition is in force in all 'habitations'.

(19) I.e., throughout all habitations.

(20) The phrase, 'throughout your habitations', Ex. XXXV, 3.

(21) Deut. XXI, 22.

(22) The Sabbath.

(23) Ex. XXXI, 14 which prohibits all kinds of about on the Sabbath.

(24) Lit., 'or it is not but'.

(25) The prohibition of labour.

(26) Lit., 'or it is not but'.

(27) Ex. XXXV, 3.

(28) Num. XXXV, 29, referring to the death penalties of murderers.

(29) I.e., execute no death penalty of burning on the Sabbath. The death penalty of 'burning' was executed by pouring molten lead through the condemned man's mouth into his body, thus burning his internal organs.

(30) Lit., 'what, (is it) not?'

(31) Of death or kareth. V. supra p. 25, n. 1.

(32) Why the death penalty of burning - a kind of work - which according to R. Nathan would involve kareth must not be executed on the Sabbath.

(33) Though the penalties involved include that of kareth. Thus it follows that a positive precept may supersede even such a prohibition. So also in the case of the levirate marriage it might have been assumed that the precept of marrying one's deceased childless brother's widow supersedes the prohibition of marrying a consanguineous relative despite the fact that such a transgression involves elsewhere the penalty of kareth; hence it was necessary for Scripture to add, ''aleha' (Lev. XVIII, 18) , to indicate that even a levirate marriage is in such a case forbidden. (V. supra 3b and 5b) .

(34) V. supra p. 24, n. 12.

(35) The death penalty of burning.

(36) Cf. supra note 4.

(37) Lit., 'what (difference is it) to me', Shab. 106a. The dyes were boiled in connection with the construction of the Tabernacle that was made by Moses, and any kind of labour that was there performed is included among the thirty-nine principal kinds of labour which are forbidden on the Sabbath (v. Shab. 73a) and involve the penalty of kareth. Cf. supra p. 26, n. 8.

(38) Who deduced from Scriptural texts that a judicial death sentence may not be executed on the Sabbath.

(39) The assumption that the execution of a judicial death sentence might supersede the Sabbath.

(40) The Sabbath.

(41) Ex. XXXI, 14.